“Because the God who said, Out of darkness light shall shine, is the One who shined in our hearts to illuminate the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.”
-2 Corinthians 4:6
I’ve been commenting here and there on how existential views of man or theological concepts have shaped religious building works. Architecture is very philosophical and theories abound as to why or how we should build and what our built environment says about us. Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Modern all, at their core, are tectonic theories about life.
Roman supremacy began to diminish in the 3rd century AD through the development of external and internal difficulties. Barbarian invasions that weakened military and economic status and the spiritual crisis of disaffection toward the state cults provided the catalyst for change. The Emperor Constantine’s conversion to Christianity before a decisive victory over contending generals for Rome lead to renewed vigor in religious architecture. Thus, the timber roofed basilica church. But the most radical architectural experiments came from Justinian’s attempt to restore the grandeur of the Roman Empire. Thus, Hagia Sophia in 537 AD.
The problem of the ideal Byzantine church was expressing the ideals of a non-material faith in the most materialistic arts. The design of Hagia Sophia reversed the stoic sobriety of early Christian churches through sublime visions and symbols of religious motifs. Symbolism took precedent over function. The dome itself was a symbol of heaven and was perforated to let in light right at the dome’s base so that the dome seemed to float above the church.
Hagia Sophia is an amalgam of ambiguity and mystique created through the dome’s use of light, textural effects, and spatial qualities. In stark contrast to the Pantheon’s singular opening, the dome of Hagia Sophia is penetrated at its base by a ring of windows, spaced so closely that they give the appearance of a continuous band of light. This dematerialization through light was a central theme.
In the Pantheon every detail appears in full plasticity and clarity through the single beam of light streaming from the oculus, but in Hagia Sophia light filters in through the perforated dome in ethereal luminosity. The dome, seemingly devoid of dimension, gleams and hovers in phantasmal lightness, in contrast to the Pantheon’s coffering, which visually extends the weight of the dome. The abundance of light flooding in counters the perceived bulk of the dome so that what is perceived is not the structural force but the immaterial ambiance. The true massiveness of the masonry structure is replaced with a virtual dome created from light reflecting off the mosaic-covered surfaces.
The space within the Pantheon draws man to the center. There, he is the definitive nucleus of the world. Under Hagia Sophia’s great dome man’s position is never fixed. It becomes a vague abstraction with no possible connection to reality. The dome does not reach down to envelope man at the center; it lingers unattainably distant as a golden vision of heaven.
Here again, the religious messages of Christianity were being communicated through architecture.
The dome was an earthly analogue to heaven. The circle of the dome itself was understood to represent God—unity, infinity, and homogeneity. The square base with its four sides represented mankind. Establishing the circular dome in relation to the square base alludes to the Christian notions of holiness, divinity, and man’s importance in God’s purpose. The circle and the square merged as one and functioned together to let in light, hinting at God’s desire to enter into man and shine out of him.
Religious architecture at best is a physical representation of an ideal. It may induce a self-imposed humility or silence upon its visitors but it doesn’t accomplish anything intrinsic. God is not impressed with contrived reverence upon entering a church. Neither is He satisfied with magnificent works of architecture constructed in His name. He does not dwell in temples made with hands (Acts 7:48). A physical structure with flooded with other-worldly light in is not going to satisfy the God who is light. He wants to shine into our heart and then make His home there. He wants to build Himself into our being, scatter our darkness, and break down our opacity. Because we house the God who is light we will ultimately become the city of light, the New Jerusalem, and we will shine out the glory of God’s divinity through our glorified humanity for all eternity.